Properties and performance of rare-earth-doped barium titanate ceramics
MARAK V. 1, DRDLIK D. 1,2, TOFEL P. 1,3, DRDLIKOVA K. 1,2, MACA K. 1,2
1 CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czechia; 2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czechia; 3 Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czechia
Lead-free electroceramics based on barium titanate may be used in composites with more durable structural ceramics. For possible composite applications is necessary to change the sintering behaviour of BaTiO3 and, at the same time, maintain its functional properties. In this work, doped BaTiO3 ceramics were prepared using electrophoretic deposition. Rare-earth oxides, i.e., Er2O3, Dy2O3, Eu2O3, Tb407, and CeO2, were used as dopants in amounts of 1, 3, and 5 wt. %. The prepared ceramics were evaluated in terms of dilatometry X-ray diffraction analysis, relative density, mean grain size, hardness, Raman spectroscopy, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Dilatometric measurements showed a change in sintering behaviour in Er- and Tb-doped samples and a broadening and lowering of tetragonal-cubic phase transformation in all doped samples. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a tetragonal phase in all samples; the tetragonality of the BaTiO3 crystalline cell decreased with dopant content. A suitable choice of dopant made allowed to significantly increase the relative density and hardness of sintered samples while preventing coarsening of the microstructure during the heat treatment. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the dopants and showed strong fluorescence behaviour in some cases. Dielectric and piezoelectric measurements showed the dopant’s influence on BaTiO3 electromechanical performance.