Carbon-Free Ammonia Combustion for Industrial Fabrication of Ceramic Tiles
CHENG Y. 1
1 FOSHAN XIANHU LABORATORY, FOSHAN CITY, China
Manufacturing of ceramic tiles requires heating at ~1300?, which is achieved through combustion of fossil fuels, mainly coal, heavy oil and nature gas. Between 60 and 70% of CO2 emission in ceramic tile manufacturing comes from burning of the fuels. Ceramic industry, like other high temperature manufacturing industries, is under great pressures to reduce the carbon emission and move towards sustainable manufacturing processes. Currently, there are only two scalable carbon-free fuels suitable for industrial applications, hydrogen and ammonia. Hydrogen has technical challenges in large scale transportation and storage, thus is difficult to meet the very large quantity demands by high temperature manufacturing industries as a fuel. On the other hand, the transportation and storage technologies for ammonia are much matured. But, ammonia has a high ignition energy, low combustion speed and narrow flammability range, and the nitrogen in the molecule is a source of NOx emission, thus there are many technical challenges in using ammonia as a fuel for high temperature manufacturing applications. In this work, we have developed a novel technology of firing ammonia fuel and successfully manufactured ceramic tiles in a pilot-scale production line. By developing a new type of staged combustion burners combined with an anhydrous ammonia SCR technique, both the amounts of NOx and residual ammonia emissions are well controlled to meet the regulatory standards and the ceramic tile products fired with ammonia fuel achieved excellent properties.